Sunday, June 20, 2021

DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid)

Deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA is a molecule that contains the instructions an organism needs to develop, live and reproduce.

In its double-stranded form DNA is the genetic material of most organisms, the two strands form a double helix with the strands running in opposite directions as determined by the sugar-phosphate backbone of the molecule.

DNA is a polymer, which is strung together from a series of monomers. Monomers, which form the building blocks of nucleic acids, are called nucleotides.

Nucleotides are the building blocks from which DNA and RNA are made. Nucleic acids are single- or double stranded, thread-like polymers, made up of a linear array of monomers, the nucleotides. Nucleotides are attached together to form two long strands that spiral to create a structure called a double helix.

All nucleotides are constructed from three components: sugar ring, a phosphate, and a nucleobase. Sugar ring is a 5-member of carbon of a nucleotide. Each carbon of nucleotide is named as 1’, 2’, 3’, 4’, and 5’. A phosphate is attached to the 5’ carbon of nucleotide and a nucleobase is attached to the 1’ carbon of nucleotides respectively. In addition, the 3’ carbon is attached to a hydroxyl group (HO).

The four types of nitrogen bases are adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G) and cytosine (C). The order of these bases is what determines DNA's instructions, or genetic code.

DNA molecules are long and fit inside cells, DNA is coiled tightly to form structures named as chromosomes. Each chromosome contains a single DNA molecule. Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes, which are found inside the cell's nucleus.

Recombinant DNA is DNA in which the nucleotide sequence has been altered in a way that does not occur naturally by mating and/or natural recombination. “Recombinant-DNA Plant” - means a plant in which the genetic material has been changed through in vitro nucleic acid techniques, including recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and direct injection of nucleic acid into cells or organelles.
DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid)

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