Saturday, March 27, 2021

Salmonellosis: The most common foodborne infections

Salmonellosis is an illness caused by Salmonella bacteria. When Salmonella bacteria are ingested, they pass through a person’s stomach and colonize the small and large intestine. There, the bacteria invade the intestinal mucosa and proliferate. The bacteria can invade the lymphoid tissues of the gastrointestinal tract and spread to the bloodstream.

Salmonellosis ranges clinically from the common Salmonella gastroenteritis (diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and fever) to enteric fevers (including typhoid fever) which are life threatening febrile systemic illness requiring prompt antibiotic therapy. Severe cases of illness requiring hospitalization are more often seen in infants, the elderly, and individuals with impaired immune systems.

Salmonella is a rod-shaped, Gram-negative facultative anaerobe that belongs to the family Enterobacteriaceae. The bacteria can cause cramps, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. There are several different types, or strains, of Salmonella bacteria, and they all can make you sick.

Salmonella can be found in soil, water, raw food, and the bowel movements (poop) of some animals, including reptiles like turtles and snakes. Other food sources that are involved in the transmission of Salmonella include fresh fruits and vegetables. In general, food animals such as swine, poultry and cattle are the prime sources of Salmonella infections.

Salmonella gastroenteritis is characterized by the sudden onset of
• diarrhea (sometime blood-tinged),
• abdominal cramps
• fever, and
• occasionally nausea and vomiting.

Illness usually lasts 4–7 days. If the infection spreads to the bloodstream and distant organs, the illness increases in duration and severity and will usually include signs and symptoms related to the organ affected.
Salmonellosis: The most common foodborne infections

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