Saturday, May 22, 2021

Cereal rye (Secale cereale L.)

Approximately one-third of the total rye crop is used for food, predominantly for various types of bread; the rest is mainly used as feed. Rye is a traditional raw material used for baking in Northern and Eastern Europe.

It is a comparatively modern cereal, first cultivated in northern Europe. Rye is thought to have originated from wild types of rye, which are weeds in wheat crops in Asia Minor. Generally consumed as whole grain products, rye offers a good source of dietary fiber, phenolic compounds, vitamins, trace elements and minerals. Compared to wheat, rye generally contains less starch and crude protein but more dietary fiber (DF).

Dietary fiber is not digested in the upper gastrointestinal tract of humans. Depending on the baking process, part of the starch in rye bread may also be resistant to digestion in the small intestine, and may reach the large intestine where it is fermented by the colonic bacteria.

The DF content of rye is actually the highest among the common cereals. The major DF constituents of rye are arabinoxylan (AX), β-glucan, cellulose, fructan, and lignin.

The DF in cereals is located mainly in the outer layers of the kernel, especially in the bran. Wheat and rye have a similar bran content, but rye contains more cells within the endosperm, and thus has a higher DF content.

Rye bread has also been shown to have beneficial physiological effects especially with respect to glucose metabolism and satiating effects.
Cereal rye

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